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Infant mortality in Åland, Finland, from 1751 to 1935 is examined. The 18th and early 19th century rates in Åland were more characteristic of Eastern European populations than Western Europe or England. A steady decline in the mortality rates and a reduction in the year-to-year variation began about 1810. This decline is linked to medical innovations, decreases in household and family size, and socio­economic changes. Stillbirth ratios appear to be relatively high and stable from 1751 to 1935 (ranging from 17 to 37/1000). Regional variation in infant mortality rates in the Åland archipelago does not appear to be shaped by either geographic location of the parishes or population density. Data are provided for causes of death during the neonatal and postneonatal periods. A time series analysis demonstrated that high birth rates tend to co-occur with periods of high infant mortality. Factors that may have influenced the infant mortality rates include household size and complexity, twinning rates, and breast feeding patterns.