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The adult members of 200 families from a town in Northeastern Brazil, studied as part of a project on protozoan diseases, were classified by appearance into gradations of White, Black, and Indian ethnic groups. Physical measurements were made and the non-Indian subgroups were compared. Nose width, span, and lower segment showed the most significant variation with race. While head measurements generally varied monotonically with race, stature and lower segments in both sexes did not. Findings also suggest that significant racial difference in span and segment ratios may show earlier than those in stature. A moderate association was shown between devotional surnames and Black admixture. Mahalanobis’ D2 measure of distance suggested some similarity of the sample to the Seminole Indians of Florida. Recent data on the Atlantic slave trade bear on these findings.