Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy is associated with increased spontaneous abortion rates, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, congenital defects, and behavioral anomalies. There is considerable evidence, both direct and indirect, that many of these effects are due to fetal hypoxia.
Abel, Ernest L.
"Consumption of Alcohol During Pregnancy: A Review of Effects on Growth and Development of Offspring,"
3, Article 3.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol54/iss3/3