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It is proposed that a new transdisciplinary science, which can best be titled Human Population Biology, has developed. The history of this subject is traced through the formation of the various disciplines devoted to the study of human biology and behavior. The historical data indicates that, while Physical Anthropology was the principle founding discipline, population level studies in other disciplines were also important contributors. The structure of the topic is examined in terms of practitioners, theory, methods, and applications. The disciplinary affiliations of the practitioners and their methods are deduced from an analysis of recent articles in Human Biology and Annals of Human Biology. The current theory and applied aspects of the subject matter are evaluated on the basis of current books and review articles. The general unity of theory, as well as the commonality of the methods which are based largely on the interpretation of naturally-occurring experiments, imply the formation of a discipline. However, the very diverse disciplinary affiliations of the practitioners mandate that the topic presently be considered as transdisciplinary. The developing applications of the research findings suggest that a reasonable funding base for future studies should develop in spite of the current funding difficulties common to transdisciplinary sciences.