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Size (stature and body weight), shape (ponderal index and relative sitting height) and body composition (log Sskinfolds and arm muscle and bone areas) were studied in 133 male and 120 female children from the Isle of Lewis. Demographic data were collected from their parents. There were significant differences in the regional distribution within the island of many of the demographic variables. In general, children from urban Stornoway were more likely to come from non-island, high status and exogamous families, as compared with rural areas. Demographic differences within the rural areas themselves were not marked, but there was a tendency for eastern families to be intermediate between those from the west of the island and those from Stornoway. Differences in physical measurements were confined largely to those associated with weight (weight itself; ponderal index; fat); linear measurements showed few differences. Boys from the west of the island were significantly the heaviest and fattest. It seems likely that environmental (possibly dietary) rather than genetic factors are responsible for this difference. Rather surprisingly, advancement in puberty ratings in males was associated with an increase in linearity of build. This result was not found in females. Compared with U.K. standards, Lewis children in this age group are lighter, but of approximately the same stature.