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The extent to which early childhood radiopaque transverse lines and enamel hypoplasias co-occur in a culturally diverse prehistoric skeletal sample has been examined. Stringent sampling criteria have partially reduced the potential biasing effects of radiopaque transverse line resorption which may have affected earlier studies evaluating the relation of these lesions. The standard method for determining the ages at which radiopaque transverse lines form in individuals has been refined to reflect varied, age-specific growth rates and sexual dimorphism. Although a one- to-one relationship between the occurrence of these two types of lesions in individuals during the zero to six year age interval was not found, the results of this study do indicate that a statistically significant co-occurrence does exist. When present, such co-occurrence is most likely the manifestation of an individual’s dual susceptibility to these lesions when in a high state of stress rather than an indication of any physiological relation between them.