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Blood pressure levels are described for Samoan adults residing in American Samoa and Hawaii. The relationship of modernization to blood pressure is examined by comparing residential groups. The effects of migration are assessed by comparing migrants with sedentes according to the migrants’ area of origin. Other biological factors such as age, sex and body fat are also considered in the analysis. Among sedentes average blood pressure is higher in the modernized area. Among migrants to Hawaii only those who originated in the more traditional areas of Samoa have higher blood pressure than their sedente counterparts. Body fat is positively related to blood pressure in all but one sub-group of Samoans. Comparison of Samoan blood pressures with other Polynesian groups shows close similarities when degree of exposure to modern society is considered. Samoans as a whole are at intermediate levels of modernization and have average blood pressure lower than some other Polynesian groups. However, the Samoan sub-group most in contact with modem life seems to have systolic and diastolic blood pressure lower than those Samoans intermediate in contact. It is suggested that there may be limits to the age-increases in blood pressure usually associated with modernization due to adaptation by the individuals most involved in a modem life style.