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There is evidence that infection with Mycobacterium leprae lowers fertility of some leprosy patients. To test this hypothesis age-specific birth rates of leprous and healthy individuals were compared in a completely ascertained Philippine popula­tion in which leprosy is endemic. The fertility of lepromatous males and females after, but not before, and of females during the five-years preceding the onset of leprosy was significantly lower than that of the healthy population. These differences were not seen when the fertility of those with tuberculoid leprosy was com­pared with that of the healthy population. The implications of these findings for discovering causes and significance of reduced fertility of male and female victims of lepromatous leprosy are discussed.