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The Tecumseh, Michigan Community Health Study provided an opportunity to study the familial relationships in maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO 2 max). A total of 1066 males and 119 females, age 10-69 were given a multi-staged treadmill test. Maximal oxygen uptake was measured in subjects up to age 40. In older subjects maximal oxygen uptake was estimated by fitting a straight line to measured submaximal oxygen uptake and heart rate at various treadmill grades. Age, weight and body fatness (skinfolds) are related to V02 max. In studying the familial relationships in V()2 max, the influence of these three variables was removed by regression analysis. Among fathers less than 40 years of age, the father-son relationship in V()2 max was moderately high (r = 0.66). For all fathers and sons the correlation coefficient was 0.34. Both of these coefficients are statistically significant. In 70 pairs of brothers, the relationship in V02 max was not statistically significant. The correlation coefficient for 27 husband-wife pairs was also not statistically significant.