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Body proportions of two Peruvian Quechua populations of similar genetic composition, as determined by A-B-O and Rh blood groups, were compared. The study included 242 lowland Quechua children and 294 highland Quechua children ranging in age from 7 to 19 years. Although the highland children are taller and heavier than the lowland children, the highland children have shorter legs relative to stature and shorter arms relative to stature and sitting height when compared to their lowland counterparts. The fact that the observed differences in body proportion do not follow the differences in nutritional status suggests that altitude and temperature play an important role in the development of body proportions.