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The relations between ABO and Rhesus D blood groups and serum cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids were studied in blood samples obtained from 666 young Greek subjects (503 military conscripts and 163 high school girls or student nurses). Rh-negative subjects had higher serum cholesterol levels than those found in the Rh-positives. No difference was observed among the ABO groups and between the Rhesus groups as regards the distribution of triglyceride and phopholipid levels. Furthermore in this series, where cholesterol levels were generally low, no relationship was evident between ABO groups and serum cholesterol.