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A population-based study on blood pressure patterns in relation to age and other selected variables in 214 females living in urban and rural areas of Ludhiana District, Punjab, India, yielded the following information: 1. The prevalence of hypertension by WHO criteria (160/95 mm Hg) was less than one and one-half percent. 2. There was a significant increase in blood pressure levels with in­creasing age. 3. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also strongly correlated with weight and obesity in the urban areas, but in the rural areas only diastolic pressure was significantly related to weight and obesity. 4. No urban-rural or occupational differences in blood pressure levels were observed. 5. The data suggest that blood pressures in the Punjab are between those of the world’s less developed populations and more acculturated societies. Since India is a developing nation, it may provide a laboratory for a natural experiment where the effect of acculturation forces on blood pressure and the chronic diseases can be observed prospectively.