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Seasonal variation in deaths registered from 1945 to 1970 in a rural Zapotec-speaking community in Oaxaca, Mexico was analyzed. Total mortality for the community showed the highest incidence during the five month rainy season. When data were analyzed by age into infant, early childhood and other ages, it was apparent that the major component of the seasonal influence was due to higher than expected mortality in children 1 through 4 years of age. Infant mortality and its components, neonatal and non-neonatal mortality, did not show seasonal variation in this rural com­munity. Thus, the rainy months are particularly hazardous for children 1 through 4 years of age. Examination of reported causes of death implicates conditions associated with gastro-intestinal disorders during the rainy season, as two-thirds of the deaths attributed to gastro-intestinal disorders in the 1 through 4 year old age group occur during the five rainy months. Although infant mortality in this community is high, the lack of seasonal variation in infant mortality may he related to breast feeding.