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Mortality profiles of five prehistoric populations have been constructed utilizing paleodemographic life-table data reported elsewhere; a total of 1724 skeletons, aged on morphological criteria by those who originally described them, are represented. These profiles have revealed an intriguing population-common mortality trend for the directly post-weaning age interval. An increased rate of mortality' during the 20 to 30 year age interval is also evident and substantiates previous reports of the existence of such a trend. These trends have been analyzed in the context of the paleopathological data associated with the populations under study. The data suggest that increased mortality during the directly post-weaning years may have been the result of nutritionally related post-weaning stress. Increased mortality during the 20 to 30 year old age interval was most likely associated with childbirth.