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The nutritional status of two Kayapo populations have been studied at a time when they were little affected by exogenous cultures. Contrary to inferences of earlier studies on food intake, we found the nutritional state generally good. Infants were small, but as age increased the Indians gained relative to standard growth curves. Weight/height ratios and mid­arm muscle circumference compared favorably to North American norms. Hair root diameters were a little below the available norms, but the proportion of roots in the growing phase was normal. Serum albumin levels in the Mekranoti were similar to Caucasian standards, but a little lower in the Xikrin, who were heavily infected with malaria.