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The growth in height, weight, and two thoracic diameters of three populations of southern Peruvian Amerindian children is described. The results indicate that altitude has an effect on the growth of height and weight during late childhood and a more dramatic effect on adolescent growth. Chest growth during this period appears to he very little affected. This finding may he explained by the hypothesis that chest growth is under different genetic control than the development of stature or weight and is relatively insensitive to the altitude-related environmental factors which affect general somatic growth rates.