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The exercise capacities of three groups tested under hot and humid conditions in the Terai jungle of southern Nepal are assessed in terms of: (1) anthropometric factors that might facilitate heat exchange with the environment, and (2) acclimatizational factors. Compared with two groups of temperate highland descent, indigenes are smaller, lighter, less fat and have higher SA/w ratios. They also exhibit the highest maximum oxygen consumption values. However, it is not possible to attribute group differences in maximum oxygen consumption to morphological factors. The performance of indigenes is significantly better than that of morphologically similar migrants and first generation residents; and the degree to which morphology is statistically correlated with maximum oxygen consumption differs from group to group. It is also difficult to attribute group differences in performance to acclimatizational factors. Rather than showing improved performance, long term residents of temperate highland descent perform more poorly than do recent migrants. It is suggested, therefore, that environmental elements other than those associated with thermoregulation in the heat may affect the performance of migrants and first generation residents of temperate highland descent.