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The relationship of differences in parental stature to offspring increase in height has been studied in a sample of 5,067 parent-offspring pairs derived from the U.S. Ten-State Nutritional Survey of 1968-1970. The results indicate that: (1) the secular trend towards greater stature is evident only in the offspring of short parents, while the offspring of tall parents show no increase in stature; (2) the percent increase in height among populations characterized by short stature, such as the Japanese and U.S. Italian-born, is greater than among tall populations.