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A 1972 survey of fertility among 98 Omaha Indian women of childbearing age living in rural and urban areas of Nebraska shows that the urban experience has not depressed either fertility levels or the desire for large numbers of children. Larger numbers of children were desired and produced by city women than by their reservation counterparts. For other socio-economic and cultural variables such as age, education, income, and preservation of cultural traditions, the populations were comparable. High fertility cannot be explained by religious background, ignorance of, or unwillingness to use birth control. Values placed upon large families are probably related to past and present experiences of high loss rates among those children conceived and born.