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Examination of Eskimo data in 11 censuses from 1940 to 1970 of Barrow, Alaska, permitted identification of surviving births with their mothers. The fertility of women was traced through several periods of economic depression. Population pyramids, period fertility and cohort fertility were recorded. Women who began reproduction during periods of prosperity had high fertility and short birth intervals which persisted through periods of adversity. Those cohorts which met economic hardship when young had reduced fertility and longer birth intervals then and in subsequent periods of adversity. These findings are at variance with traditional demographic transition theory.