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Previous work has shown that Hopis have reduced their fertility much more rapidly than Navajos since World War II. While several methods of birth control are probably used with varying degrees of success, this paper shows that surgical means for averting childbearing appear to play an important role. Abortions are slightly less common among Hopi than Navajo women, but the former have a higher rate in the older age groups. Hysterectomies and bilateral tubal ligations are more common among Hopis. Vasectomies are virtually never done on Hopi and Navajo men.