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A sample of 455 couples of the Goyigama Caste of rural Sri Lanka (Ceylon) were interviewed for information on consanguinity, fertility, offspring mortality, and socio-economic status. Multiple regression of various measures of fertility on the coefficient of kinship as well as temporal and socio-economic variables were performed for all couples and for those in which the wife was born after 1920. In contrast to earlier studies the consanguinity of couples was found to depress the total number of pregnancies, live births, and living offspring. All three were significantly depressed in the sample of wives born after 1920, while only the depression of the number of living offspring was significant in the total sample. Consanguinity of the couples was not found to significantly affect rates of spontaneous abortions, still­births, or later offspring deaths.