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Hematocrit levels were studied in 8,581 male and 10,618 female Blacks aged 0-59 years, in Upstate New York. Persons with sickle-cell trait and with normal hemoglobin were compared. Differences in mean levels were small and not statistically significant, except for males aged 12-13 and females aged 8-9. Lower means for trait persons at these ages could be a chance finding, or could possibly reflect delayed physical maturation. Criteria of “low” and “high” hematocrit were selected somewhat arbitrarily, from previously reported standards based on population distributions. The frequency of “low” hematocrit did not differ between trait and normal groups in any age-sex category. Adult males (aged 17-59), but not females, with the trait were less likely to have a “high” hematocrit compared with normal males. These findings suggest the need for more detailed analysis on other large populations.