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In data obtained from a Greek population, a significant increase in male livebirths was observed when either parent was positive for HBsAg (Australia antigen), an antigen associated with the postulated hepatitis agent. Age, fertility, birth order, child-parent transmission, and a few socioeconomic items were some variables examined in relation to the increased sex ratio. The conclusion, based on the available evidence, is that HBgAg in parents is possibly biologically associated with the sex of their progeny.