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The ABO, MNSs, Diego, Duffy, Kell, Kidd, Lutheran and P blood groups of 105 Ojibwa Indians from Wikwemikong and 96 Ojibwa Indians from Pikangikum are described. Both samples were obtained from reservation populations, the former located on Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron, the latter located in northwestern Ontario. Both populations lack r" and R° which have been identified in the cognate Chippewa Indians of Minnesota.The Pikangikum Ojibwa have the highest incidence of Rz in North America, and the highest incidence of Dia north of Mexico. The Wikwemikong Ojibwa lack Dia, but are distinguished by the presence of B, r, Lua and K, which are not found in Pikangikum. Genic chi-square indicates considerable genetic divergence between the two Ontario Ojibwa populations. Given the small effective population size of the Pikangikum Ojibwa during the past 100 years, genetic drift is probably responsible for the unusual frequencies of Dia, Rz, Ms, and NS on that reservation. Caucasian gene flow is responsible for the occurrence of B, r, Lua and K in Wikwemikong. Estimates of the “aboriginal” frequencies of several blood group, serum protein and red cell enzyme genes in the Wikwemikong Ojibwa are also presented. A highly significant amount of genetic heterogeneity remains between the Ontario Ojibwa after adjustment of the frequencies for gene flow. Genetic drift is considered principally responsible for this divergence.