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Blood samples of 113 Mahishya—a Hindu caste — and of 118 Muslims of West Bengal, India, have been examined for the occurrence of genetic variants in four enzyme systems. Only two alleles of erythrocytic acid phosphatase (PHsA and PHsK) were found. For Mahishyas and Muslims the respective gene frequencies are PHsA 0.1990 and 0.2285. The difference between these two populations is not significant (x2 = 0.70, 2 d.f. P > 0.50). Lactate dehydrogenase variants Cal-1 in 4 cases and Cal-2 in 1 case were detected. The C5-+- component of pseudocholinesterase was found in 9.48% of Mahishyas and 8.09% of Muslims. Serum alkaline phosphatase types P + and P++ among Mahishyas occurred in 3.92% and 6.30% and among Mus­lims in 3.31% and 4.00% respectively.