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Digital and palmar dermatoglyphic patterns were analyzed for 362 male Quechua Indians from five populations located in the southern Peruvian highlands. The popidations are resident in varying ecozones at different altitudes representing the altiplano, tierra templada and ceja de la montana.Ethnohistorical information, recent migration patterns, as well as a number of other cultural patterns, appear to indicate sufficient gene flow to maintain genetic continuity between the populations studied. The results of an analysis of digital and palmar dermatoglyphic patterns tend to support this observation and imply a high degree of genetic similarity between all Quechua populations studied, with the exception of the Nunoa Quechua. The palmar patterns of the Nunoa Quechua are very different from those reported for the other populations and a number of interpretations for the observed differences are offered.