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A new type of dwarfism transmitted by an autosomal recessive gene is described. It is found exclusively amongst the Buang people of Papua New Guinea and is characterised by extreme shortness of adult stature ranging from 108 to 129 cm. but relatively normal adult proportions, by dorsal kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, spinal scoliosis, chondrodysplasia with joint deformities, and progressive arthritic changes in all weight-bearing joints. A characteristic feature of all those x-rayed is multiple carpal bones. Club foot is an occasional associated deformity. It appears to differ from all previously reported forms of dwarfism and is possibly due to a mutant gene arising in the relatively recent past in Mapos Village.