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Root-microbiome interactions are of central importance for plant performance and yield. A distinctive feature of legumes is that they engage in symbiosis with N2-fixing rhizobia. If and how the rhizobial symbiotic capacity modulates root-associated microbiomes are still not yet well understood. We determined root-associated microbiomes of soybean inoculated with wild type (WT) or a noeI mutant of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110 by amplicon sequencing. UPLC-MS/MS was used to analyze root exudates. The noeI gene is responsible for fucose-methylation of Nod factor secreted by USDA 110 WT strain. Soybean roots inoculated with the noeI mutant showed a significant decrease in nodulation and root-flavonoid exudation compared to roots inoculated with WT strain. The noeI mutant-inoculated roots exhibited strong changes in microbiome assembly in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane, including reduced diversity, changed co-occurrence interactions and a substantial depletion of root microbes. Root exudates and soil physiochemical properties were significantly correlated with microbial community shift in the rhizosphere between different rhizobial treatments. These results illustrate that rhizobial symbiotic capacity dramatically alters root-associated microbiomes, in which root exudation and edaphic patterns play a vital role. This study has important implications for understanding the evolution of plant-microbiome interactions.


Environmental Health and Protection | Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment | Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology | Geology


Copyright © 2021 Liu, Ma, Chen, Schlaeppi, Erb, Stirling, Hu, Wang, Zhang, Zhao, Lu, Ye and Xu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

This article was originally published by Frontiers Media in Frontiers in Microbiology: