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Pyrethroids are a class of commonly used insecticides and are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment in various regions. Aquatic toxicity of pyrethroids was often overestimated when using conventional bulk chemical concentrations because of their strong hydrophobicity. Over the last two decades, bioavailability has been recognized and applied to refine the assessment of ecotoxicological effects of pyrethroids. This review focuses on recent advances in the bioavailability of pyrethroids, specifically in the aquatic environment. We summarize the development of passive sampling and Tenax extraction methods for assessing the bioavailability of pyrethroids. Factors affecting the bioavailability of pyrethroids, including physicochemical properties of pyrethroids, and quality and quantity of organic matter, were overviewed. Various applications of bioavailability on the assessment of bioaccumulation and acute toxicity of pyrethroids were also discussed. The final section of this review highlights future directions of research, including development of standardized protocols for measurement of bioavailability, establishment of bioavailability-based toxicity benchmarks and water/sediment quality criteria, and incorporation of bioavailability into future risk assessment and management actions.


Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment | Geology


© 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Originally published by Environment International