A total of 172 elephants was maintained in 68 institutions in Japan as of 1984. The elephants were distributed as follows: 89 (3/76)* Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and 83 (19/64) African elephants (Loxodonta africana). The 68 institutions included 64 public and private zoos parks and others plus 4 circuses which held from one (1) elephant to twelve (12) elephants. Results of the survey also showed that 32 (4/28) elephants had been with their current owners for more than 20 years. The oldest elephant in Japan was held by Ueno Zoo, Tokyo; she ("Indira") was 49 years old as of 1983 when she died.
Yonetani, K. Y. (1986). Captive Elephants in Japan: Census and History. Elephant, 2(2), 3-14. Doi: 10.22237/elephant/1521731978