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Simulation studies have shown the three-form planned missing data design efficiently collects high quality data while reducing participant burden. This methodology is rarely used in sport and exercise psychology. Therefore, we conducted a re-sampling study with existing sport and exercise psychology survey data to test how three-form planned missing data survey design implemented with different item distribution approaches effect constructs’ internal measurement structure and validity. Results supported the efficacy of the three-form planned missing data survey design for cross-sectional data collection. Sample sizes of at least 300 (i.e., 100 per form) are recommended for having unbiased parameter estimates. It is also recommended items be distributed across survey forms to have representation of each facet of a construct on every form, and that a select few of these items be included across all survey forms. Further guidelines for three-form surveys based upon the results of this resampling study are provided.


Education | Health Psychology | Kinesiology | Sports Sciences


This is the final accepted manuscript of an article appearing in Psychology of Sport and Exercise with DOI 10.1016/j.psychsport.2020.101701, and is shared under a CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 license.