In recent years, ductile hybrid FRP (DHFRP) bars have been developed for use as tensile reinforcement. However, initial material costs regain high, and it is difficult to simultaneously meet strength, stiffness, ductility, and reliability demands. In this study, a reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) is conducted to determine minimum cost DHFRP bar configurations while enforcing essential constraints. Applications for bridge decks and building beams are considered, with 2, 3, and 4-material bars. It was found that optimal bar configuration has little variation for the different applications, and that overall optimized bar cost decreased as the number of bar materials increased.
Applied Mechanics | Computer-Aided Engineering and Design | Structural Engineering
Behnam, B., and Eamon, C. (2013). "Reliability-based design optimization of concrete flexural members reinforced with ductile FRP bars." Construction and Building Materials, 47, 942-950, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.05.101