Document Type



In recent years, ductile hybrid FRP (DHFRP) bars have been developed for use as tensile reinforcement. However, initial material costs regain high, and it is difficult to simultaneously meet strength, stiffness, ductility, and reliability demands. In this study, a reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) is conducted to determine minimum cost DHFRP bar configurations while enforcing essential constraints. Applications for bridge decks and building beams are considered, with 2, 3, and 4-material bars. It was found that optimal bar configuration has little variation for the different applications, and that overall optimized bar cost decreased as the number of bar materials increased.


Applied Mechanics | Computer-Aided Engineering and Design | Structural Engineering


NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Construction and Building Materials. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Construction and Building Materials, 47, (2013), available online at: