"Clinicians are increasingly aware that a single technique for individual or family counseling is inappropriate in an ethnically complex society. All clients in counseling seek relief for their distress, but, as Mayo (1991:318) has pointed out, "The paths to that goal are many." Consequently, several works clarify the characteristics of different social and cultural groups, particularly with reference to their acceptance of professional counseling and the most effective techniques. (See McGoldrick, et al. 1982; Mindel, et al. 1988; Baca Zinn & Eitzen 1993).
At best, such works, and courses based on them, provide summaries of a broad spectrum of ethnic cultures. For example, one work on ethnic families covers 19 cultures, another 17 (McGoldrick, et al. 1982; Mindel, et al. 1988). While this is a valuable broadening of therapeutic technique, experience in clinical work as well as in teaching clinical method illustrates its insufficiency. Any compendium must be limited to a description of the modal pattern in the bestknown communities; for several reasons it has limited value as a guide for a specific client...."
Sengstock, Mary C. (1994). Teaching clinicians about ethnic cultures. Clinical Sociology Review 12:271-275.