Open Access Thesis
Date of Award
Ann M. Stacks
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been associated with negative child behavioral outcomes. Though many studies have found links between maternal smoking during pregnancy and behavior problems in children, few if any have looked into potential moderating factors of that relationship and few have examined the effects of second-hand smoking. This study examined child temperament at 6 months and sex as potential moderators of the relationship between maternal smoke exposure and both internalizing and externalizing behaviors at 24 month, 36 months and first grade. Both maternal smoking and maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were examined. Data for this study came from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Results indicate that temperament moderates the relationship between maternal ETS exposure during pregnancy and child externalizing behaviors in males at 24 months. Further research is needed to determine what other factors may moderate these relationships.
Kohl, Amy Beth, "Temperament and sex as moderators of the relationship between maternal smoke exposure during pregnancy and child externalizing behaviors" (2011). Wayne State University Theses. 75.