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Date of Award
Nutrition and Food Science
Adverse serum lipid profiles have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, and dietary fats are implicated in affecting lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Trans fatty acids negatively impact risk of CVD, and emerging technologies are formulating oil alternatives for use in processed foods. The specific aim of the study was to assess the outcome of interesterified, blended, naturally occurring, and genetically modified oils on blood and liver lipids in gerbil and hamster models. Experiment 1 was a pilot study to test the Mongolian gerbil model. Experiment 2 was in gerbils fed one of five diets: 12:0+14:0-coconut oil (Hi-LM), 18:0+18:2-interesterified soybean oil (Hi-SLO), 18:2-low linolenic soybean oil (Hi-LO Low-LN), 16:0-palm olein (Hi-PO), and 18:1-veggie fruit oil (Hi-OL). Relative to the positive control, Hi-LM, plasma total cholesterol and HDL-C were significantly lower in all diets. LDL and HDL particles had lower TC composition (mg/dl) in all diets compared to Hi-LM (p¡Ü0.05). Experiment 3 was in Golden Syrian hamsters fed one of five diets: 12:0+14:0-coconut oil (Hi-LM), 18:2-low linolenic soybean oil (Hi-LO Low-LN), 16:0-palm olein (Hi-PO), 18:1-veggie fruit oil (Hi-OL), and 18:2-soybean oil (Hi-LO). Results indicate that plasma cholesterol and HDL-C were approximately equal between Hi-LM and Hi-LO. HDL particle composition in Hi-LO had higher percentage of cholesterol esters, and Hi-LM had lower percentage of triglycerides (p<0.05). Coconut and soybean oil diets also had significantly smaller HDL particle diameters than the other three diets. Results from this study suggest that relative to the positive control, coconut oil, no adverse effects on lipids and lipoprotein profiles were observed. The oil blends that are possible alternatives to trans fats necessitate further research into dietary interventions on humans.
Jackson, Janice, "Effects of alternative oil formulations to trans fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism in rodent models" (2011). Wayne State University Theses. Paper 73.