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Date of Award
Nutrition and Food Science
DIFFERENT TYPES AND AMOUNTS OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND THEIR EFFECT ON BODY WEIGHT, PLASMA LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS PROFILE IN GOLDEN SYRIAN HAMSTERS
Advisor: Dr. Pramod Khosla
Major: Nutrition and Food Science
Degree: Master of Science
Background: Diets high in fat were accused for the high prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the USA and the world. However, many studies showed that following a high fat diet lead to more weight loss and some beneficial metabolic effects when compared to high-carbohydrate diet. Among the different types of fat (saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)) SFAs were the only one blamed for being cholesterolemic and associated with CVD. However, even different SFAs were shown to exert different effect on cholesterol, with myristic acid being 4-6 times more cholesterolemic than lauric acid and palmitic acid.
Objective: To test how different types and amounts of SFAs will affect body weight, plasma lipids and lipoprotein profile when replacing carbohydrate (CHO).
Design: Phase 1: 90 males Golden Syrian Hamsters were fed ad libitum while assigned to 1 of 6 different diet groups containing different amount of SFAs ( 60% lauric+myristic (LM), 45% LM, 30% LM, 21% control, 30% palmitic acid (PA), or 45% PA). After 7 weeks of feeding, 48 hamsters were sacrificed and the 42 left were given a calorie restricted diet (phase 2) and assigned to one of 4 different diet groups ( 60% LM, 21% control, 30% PA, or 45% PA). The 42 hamsters were sacrificed after 6 weeks.
Measurements: Body weight and diet consumed were monitored, plasma lipids ( TC, HDL-C,TG) were determined, lipoproteins were isolated and assayed for TC, TG, PL, FC and protein composition, and liver lipids were extracted and assayed for TC and FC.
Results: feeding diets containing different types and amounts of SFAs did not have any pronounced influence on body weights. However restricting energy was an efficient way to reduce body weight and to improve plasma lipids profile. Palmitic acid groups appeared minimally cholesterolemic when compared to lauric + myristic acid groups.
Conclusion: Our study revealed that diets high in fat are not the primary cause of weight gain; rather it is the amount of calorie consumed. As a result restricting energy showed to be effective both for losing weight and improving plasma lipids profile. In addition, when consuming fat, one should be selective since some are more cholesterolemic than other and some are even neutral. Also, Lifestyle and other dietary factors play an important role in managing weight and CVD risk.
Baydoun, Mariam, "Different types and amounts of saturated fatty acids and their effect on body weight, plasma lipids and lipoproteins profile in golden syrian hamsters" (2011). Wayne State University Theses. Paper 116.