We examined individual differences in shame responding in early childhood and predictive relations with shame proneness in middle childhood. Child shame responding, parental shaming, and child temperamental inhibition were assessed at Time 1 (n = 225, aged 3–4 years), shame responding was reassessed at Time 2 (n = 199, aged 5–7 years), and shame proneness was assessed at Time 3 (n = 162, aged 7–9 years). Shame responding was assessed from emotionexpressive reactions to failure, parental shaming from self-reports and spouse reports, temperamental inhibition from mother and father ratings, and shame proneness from hypothetical scenarios. Girls showed more shame than boys by school age. Increased shame responding between preschool age and school age was predicted, for girls, from lower inhibition or higher mother shaming and, for boys, from higher mother shaming if boys were highly inhibited. Shame responding at preschool age predicted higher or lower shame proneness in middle childhood conditional on gender and parenting.
Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Lall, Debra I. K.; and De Jaeger, Amy E.
"Parenting and Child Characteristics in the Prediction
of Shame in Early and Middle Childhood,"
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Vol. 56
, Article 4.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/mpq/vol56/iss4/4