Associations belween neighborhood risk and low-income children's (N :::: 168) academic performance were studied over 3 years from third to fifth grade. A neighborhood risk measure included 4 neighborhood demographic characteristics (income, educational level, female-headed households, and violenl crimes). Neighborhood risk was not associated with children's academic performance in third grade, but negatively predicted fifth grade academic penormance, after controlling for individual family demographic characteristics. For those fifth graders living in the highest risk neighborhoods, intra-individual, familial, and community factors were considered as possible sources of resilience. Children who evinced better impulse control and higher self-competence showed better academic performance, as did children whose families were more involved in their schooling. Results suggested that contact with neighbors fostered risk, not resilience.
Shumow, Lee; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; and Posner, Jill
"Risk and Resilience in the Urban Neighborhood:
Predictors of Academic Performance
Among Low-Income Elementary School Children,"
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Vol. 45
, Article 8.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/mpq/vol45/iss2/8