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Abstract

Model identification in multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) requires an equality constraint of referent variables across groups. Invariance assumption violations make it difficult to locate parameters that actually differ. Suggested procedures for locating invariant referents are cumbersome, complex, and provide imperfect results. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) may be an alternative because of its ease of use, yet empirical evaluation of its effectiveness is lacking. EFAs accuracy for distinguishing invariant from non-invariant referents was examined.

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