Many studies are performed on units that cannot be replicated; however, there is often an abundance of subsampling. By placing a reasonable upper bound on the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), it is possible to carry out classical tests of significance that have conservative levels of significance.
Perrett, Jamis J.
"A Method for Analyzing Unreplicated Experiments Using Information on the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient,"
Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods:
2, Article 17.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/jmasm/vol5/iss2/17