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Abstract

Variants of Cohen’s d, in this instance dt and dadj, has the largest influence on U1 measures used with smaller sample sizes, specifically when n1 and n2 = 10. This study indicated that bias for variants of d, which influence U1 measures, tends to subside and become more manageable, in terms of precision of estimation, around 1% to 2% when n1 and n2 = 20. Thus, depending on the direction of the influence, both dt and dadj are likely to manage bias in the U1 measure quite well for smaller to moderate sample sizes.

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