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Abstract

A stochastic volatility (SV) problem is formulated as a state space form of a Hidden Markov model (HMM). The SV model assumes that the distribution of asset returns conditional on the latent volatility is normal. This article analyzes the SV model with the student-t distribution and the generalized error distribution (GED) and compares these distributions with a mixture of normal distributions from Kim and Stoffer (2008). A Sequential Monte Carlo with Expectation Maximization (SMCEM) algorithm technique was used to estimate parameters for the extended volatility model; the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and forecast statistics were calculated to compare distribution fit. Distribution performance was assessed using simulation study and real data. Results show that, although comparable to the normal mixture SV model, the Student-t and GED were empirically more successful.

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