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The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism has been identified as a potential genetic risk factor for essential hypertension. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the association of the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene with essential hypertension in adult Asian Indians. Three hundred fifty (184 males and 166 females) adult (30 years and older) Asian Indians of Calcutta and its suburbs participated in this population-based cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measures, lipids profiles, blood glucose, and blood pressure measures were collected from participants. ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and D/D typing was further reconfirmed using insertion-allele-specific amplification. Essential hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) greater than 160 mm Hg and/or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) greater than 90 mm Hg or use of any antihypertensive treatment by participants. Significantly higher SBP, DBP, and mean arterial pressure were recorded in D/D subjects compared to I/I and I/D subjects. We also observed that the odds of being hypertensive were 7.483 (95% CI = 1.746, 30.192) in D/D individuals compared to those carrying one or no D alleles. This finding suggests that ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension in Asian Indians. Moreover, individuals who are homozygous for the D allele of the ACE gene are more likely to have essential hypertension.