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A relationship has been proposed to exist between individual outcomes (live or stillbirth) of twins in the same set. Here, we analyze this association between live births and stillbirths among individuals in different twin pairs. When national birth registers are analyzed, individuals in opposite-sex twin sets can be identified and the correlation between individual outcomes estimated. However, full information about the individuals in same-sex twin sets is not, as a rule, available, and consequently, correlation coefficients cannot be estimated, but upper and lower limits of the correlation coefficients can be obtained. The methods introduced here were applied to data from Sweden (1869–1967), the Åland Islands (Finland) (1750–1949), the Kingdom of Saxony (1881–1900), and England andWales (1940–2003). Comparisons between the correlation coefficients among opposite-sex twins and the lower bound (minimum) of correlation coefficients among same-sex twins indicate that in all populations studied a stronger association exists between twins in same-sex rather than opposite-sex twin sets or pairs. For opposite-sex twin sets no general association between the correlation coefficient and the stillbirth rate was identified.