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Surnames analysis is useful for populations in which only written documents remain, as is the case for historical populations. In Córdoba province, Argentina, census records contain nominal data of inhabitants, including information on sex, age, ethnosocial category, civil status, occupation, place of birth, and residence, that can be analyzed using surnames. Relationship indicators within and among ecclesiastic units in Córdoba were estimated by isonymy for the adult white population registered in the 1813 census. The Rii, Rij, and RST coefficients and the surname abundance indicator (α) were calculated. Lasker’s distances among categories of population units were used to cluster the 16 provincial population categories. Gradients for kinship within population and for surname diversity were in agreement with the principal areas and waves of original settlement in the province. The main population clusters reflect those areas, whereas minor clusters coincide with the network of roads existing in the territory by 1813. The structure of the white population in Córdoba province was determined by the geographic location of the original waves of settlement, and it followed a pattern of relationships conditioned by the routes connecting population units in the Colonial period.