Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a common birth defect (birth prevalence ranging from 1/500 to 1/2,000) with a complex etiology. Traits potentially related to CL/P, such as dermatoglyphics, may reflect the genetic and epidemiologic heterogeneity observed in CL/P. Such phenotypic heterogeneity in dermatoglyphic patterns may account for some of the variability in previously reported associations of dermatoglyphics and CL/P. To test this hypothesis, we took dermatoglyphic prints from individuals with nonsyndromic CL/P (n = 460) and their unaffected relatives (n = 254) from the Philippines and China. For both samples three raters designated the patterns as arch, ulnar loop, radial loop, whorl, or ‘‘other.’’ Chi-square analysis and standard ANOVA were used to investigate heterogeneity between Filipino and Chinese study subjects. The significant associations between particular pattern types and CL/P were not the same in both populations, demonstrating population-specific association of CL/P and dermatoglyphic pattern types. The ANOVA of pattern type included both CL/P cases and their relatives, with affection status, sex, and population group as variables. For each pattern type except arches, population was significant ( p < 0.0001); for radial loops, affection status was additionally significant ( p < 0.0001). When only CL/P cases were considered, population was again significant for the ulnar loop ( p < 0.0001), whorl ( p < 0.0001), and ‘‘other’’ ( p < 0.0002) patterns. The ANOVAs demonstrate between-population heterogeneity in dermatoglyphic pattern types. These results support our hypothesis that population-specific associations and population heterogeneity in dermatoglyphic patterns exist for CL/P cases and their relatives.
Scott, Nicole M.; Weinberg, Seth M.; Neiswanger, Katherine; and Brandon, Carla A.
"Dermatoglyphic Fingerprint Heterogeneity Among Individuals with Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate and Their Unaffected Relatives in China and the Philippines,"
2, Article 8.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol77/iss2/8