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The hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) has been implicated as a potential regulator of HDL-cholesterol concentration and HDL and LDL particle size. Studies have centered on a C to T transition in the promoter region of LIPC, 514 base pairs upstream from the transcription initiation site. We performed a genome-wide linkage screen for several lipoprotein size phenotypes and tested for association of these traits with LIPC 514C-T in 798 individuals from the San Antonio Family Heart Study. Median diameters were measured for HDL particles stained for apoA1 (A1), apoA2 (A2), unesterified cholesterol (UC), and esterified cholesterol (EC) and for LDLs stained for EC. The median diameter of all phenotypes exhibited evidence of linkage to the LIPC region of chromosome 15 (LODs of 1.78 to 3.79). Linkage was also observed for HDL-EC size on chromosome 5p (LOD 3.50). Association with the LIPC 514C-T polymorphism was detected for HDL-A1, HDL-A2, HDL-UC, and HDL-EC median diameters (p 0.001) but not for LDL-EC size. Linkage analyses of HDL sizes conditional on the 514C-T polymorphism reduced the LOD scores in the LIPC region only slightly, suggesting that this polymorphism does not explain the observed linkage of lipoprotein sizes to chromosome 15. These results indicate the presence of a lipoprotein size locus in the LIPC region but suggest that 514C-T is not the primary functional variant in this region, implying that additional functional mutations influencing HDL and potentially LDL size variation occur in or near LIPC.