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We examined dermatoglyphic prints of children in 11 Hungarian and 5 Gypsy population samples (collected from 1,998 children). We compared Hungarian and Gypsy populations based on 22 finger and 24 palmar traits. In univariate comparisons the two ethnic groups differed significantly in half of the studied variables (9 finger and 14 palmar traits). We used several types of multivariate analyses of the studied traits to separate the population samples. Homogeneity analysis and discriminant analysis proved to be the most appropriate method to distinguish the populations, whereas a principal components analysis was less adequate. Multivariate analyses were conducted separately for both finger and palmar traits. Although the differences between the populations were more pronounced for palmar traits, in our study Hungarian and Gypsy populations showed the best separation when finger and palmar traits were combined for analysis, except in the principal components analysis. As expected, the Hungarian and Gypsy populations separated definitely in most statistical analyses; the main reason for this is the different origins of the two ethnic groups. The existence of the difference also shows that admixture between Hungarians and Gypsies has been small despite their living beside one another for several centuries.