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The recent observation that maternal ACP1 genotype has an interactive effect with smoking on intrauterine development prompted us to search for a possible interaction effect between smoking and ACP1 genotype on haptoglobin (Hp) development in the neonatal period. ACP1 is a highly polymorphic protein tyrosine phosphatase involved in signal transduction of several growth factor receptors. The enzyme is composed of two isoforms, F and S. We studied 299 infants born in the Department of Obstetrics of the University Hospital of Rome La Sapienza. We found that an interaction between ACP1 genotype and smoking has an effect on haptoglobin development: A significant delay of haptoglobin development in infants born to smoking mothers is observed only in infants with the ACP1*B/*B genotype, which shows the highest concentration of the ACP1 F isoform. The results indicate that the ACP1 genotype modifies the deleterious effects of smoking on development not only during intrauterine life but also during the early stage of extrauterine life.